Measuring the Importance of Agglomeration Economies across Iberian Cities

Department of Applied Economics. Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 2016.

This paper aims to quantify econometrically the potential impact of agglomeration economics on labour productivity for three years: 2006, 2010 and 2014. We perform our analysis at town and province level for a selected sample of Iberian cities. Our econometric estimations test the importance of agglomeration economies on labour productivity by exploiting indexes for localization economies, urbanization economies, specialization, employment density and competition. Our findings suggest that there is a positive and statistically significant relationship between labour productivity and localization economies We are also able to assess that specialization and competition provides right incentives for the increase in labour productivity whereas urbanization economies harm improvements in productivity. We also investigate the potential spillovers effects that could stem from cities on the correspondent provinces as well as the opposite. Our outcome emphasizes the existence of a complementary relationship between cities and provinces, where agglomeration economics at province level support the degree of productivity of specialized and competitive activities in cities.

Gender Discrimination in the Labour Market

The aim of this paper is to analyse the pay gap that exists between women and men in the labour market, as well as to show its components, among which we can cite labour market discrimination. Firstly, we present the economic theories that may explain why discrimination exists in the labour market. Secondly, we show the methodology of Oxaca-Blinder, extended by Jenkins, in order to measure discrimination individually. Thirdly, we present and analyse some empirical evidence about the Spanish labour market, showing phenomena such as involuntary part-time employment and occupational sex segregation.​